June 2011

Municipal governments in Spain

Maite Vilalta's picture

Municipal governments in Spain: a situation asking for changes

What do municipalities do in Spain? 13% of the Spanish State’s public spending corresponds to local administrations. This percentage is not very different from the figures from, approximately, 30 years ago, which was 11%. It is far from the 20% average in federal countries. In Spain, an important decentralisation process has been accomplished, which has fundamentally gone in a single direction: from the central government to the autonomous community governments.

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The crown of Aragon and Europe in the 13th and 14th centuries

Stefano M. Cingolani's picture

The 13th century is the century of the Europeanization of Europe. It was a time when various monarchies expanded their borders to include those territories inhabited both by non-Christians (Muslims, Cathars and Pagans) and Christians that were not a part of the feudal and Roman Catholic system (such as the Celtic countries or the Byzantine Empire). Military conquests were not the only means of expansion. The Mediterranean was a principal route of commerce, and it was here that the three Italian maritime Republics of Genoa, Venice and Pisa fought for supremacy.

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